An Italian scientist who lived from 1564 to 1642. Galileo was the first astronomer to use the newly invented telescope to make astronomical observations. He discovered the four largest moons of Jupiter, craters and mountains on the Moon, and sunspots, and was the first to see that the Milky Way consists of a myriad of individual stars. Galileo supported the Copernican system, which held that the Sun, not Earth, was the center of the universe. As a result, he was charged with heresy by the Inquisition, and was forced to recant. He lived out his final years under house arrest.